References on Multidimensional Scaling

Young, F,W., and Lewyckyj, R. ALSCAL User's Guide. Data Analysis and Theory Associates, 3rd. Ed. 1979.

Kruskal, J. B., and Wish, M. Multidimensional Scaling. Beverly Hills, California: Sage, 1978. (General)

Kruskal, J. B. Multidimensional scaling by optimizing goodness of fit to a nonmetric hypothesis. Psychometrika 29 (1964a): 1-27. (MDSCAL)

Kruskal, J. B. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling: a numerical method. Psychometrika 29 (1964b): 115-130. (MDSCAL)

Guttman, L. A general nonmetric technique for finding the smallest coordinate space for a configuration of points. Psychometrika 33 (1968): 469-506.

Lingoes, J. C.; Roskam, E. E.; and Borg, I. Geometric Representations of Relational Data. Second edition. Ann Arbor: Mathesis Press, 1979. (MINISSA)

Young, F. W., and Torgerson, W. S. TORSCA, a FORTRAN IV program for Shepard-Kruskal multidimensional scaling analysis. Behavioral Science 12 (1976): 498. (TORSCA)

Takane, Y.; Young, F. W.; and DeLeeuw, J. Nonmetric individual differences multidimensional scaling: an alternating least squares method with optimal scaling features. Psychometrika 42 (1977): 7-67. (ALSCAL)

Kruskal, J. B.; Young, F. W.; and Seery, J. B. How to use KYST, a very flexible program to do multidimensional scaling and unfolding. Unpublished. Bell Laboratories, Murray Hills, New Jersey, 1973. (KYST)