Multidimensional Scaling

- Metric MDS: The first major step
- Torgerson (1952) - The first well-known MDS proposal. Fits the Euclidean model.
- Attneave (1950) - Proposed non-Euclidean models
- Messick & Abelson (1956) - Solved the additive constant problem
- Nonmetric MDS: The breakthrough second step
- Shepard (1962) - The intuitive psychometrics approach
- Kruskal (1964) - The mathematical/statistical rational approach
- Torgerson & Meuser (1962) - Combines Torgerson's & Kruskal's work.
- Guttman (1968) - A different, and important nonmetric approach
- McGee (1968), Roskam (1968), de Leeuw (1973), Lingoes (1973), & Young (1972) - These researchers also contributed to the development of nonmetric MDS
- Individual Differences MDS: The third major step
- Tucker & Messick ( 1963) - The Precursor - Points of View Analysis
- McGee (1968) - Nonmetric Replicated MDS
- Bloxom (1968) - Introduced the Weighted Model
- Carroll & Chang (1970) - The major contribution - introduced the INDSCAL program for fitting the Weighted model.
- Consolidation of Developments
- Takane, Young & deLeeuw (1977) - ALSCAL combines metric/nonmetric mds/wmds into one algorithm, but fits squared distances
- Ramsay (1977) - MultiScale introduces significance tests based on maximum likelihood metric mds/wmds
- de Leeuw (1977) & de Leeuw & Heiser (1977) - SMACOF combines metric/nonmetric mds/wmds into one algorithm and fits distances