Each student in a project group should think about what aspects
of the project are personally most interesting, and what analyses
are most relevant to their own specific interests. Each student
is urged to plan their own data analyses, although cooperation with
other students in the group is expected and encouraged. These analyses
should use the statistical tests and techniques discussed in lecture
and readings, within the guidelines given below.
Each student is urged to write their findings up in their own
formal APA-style paper, with emphasis on the aspects of the project
in which they are most personally interested. It is acceptable for
some or all of the students in a group to jointly co-author a paper,
although it should be realized by all who do so that the grade they
receive in the course will in part be in the hands of other students,
and conversely. Papers will be graded keeping in mind that individually
authored papers require more effort on the part of the author.
Each student must prepare a short written description of their
authoring arrangment and have it reviewed and approved by the TA
during the next-to-last Lab session.
The purpose of the paper is to report those analyses of the survey
data which are of most interest to you. You should choose a general
"theme" related to the survey, which you feel you can address to a
reasonable extent using the statistical analyses listed below. Your
paper will be a formal write-up of this theme and your hypothesis
testing strategies with respect to your topic. Keep in mind that you
will need to demonstrate knowledge of the following:
- Visualization of distributions
for all variables used in your analyses;
- T-tests, with report and visualization;
- Simple ANOVA, with report and
- Two-way ANOVA, with report and
- Correlation, with report;
The paper is part of the final examination process, and is due at
the beginning of the final.
If you wish to hand it in early, you can turn it in personally
to the Prof. or T.A., or you can place it in one of their mailboxes
in the mail room on the second floor of Davie Hall (Room 206).
Format of Paper
The paper should be in APA format, as defined in the Publication
Manual of the American Psychological Association. It should
be about 10 double-spaced "typed" pages long. It should NOT (under
any circumstances) exceed 15 pages, including references, figures
You should look in several different Psychology journals to get
a feel for the writing style and format of articles published in
Psychology. Make sure you get a sense of the sections included in
papers and what information is presented in each section. The sections
that would appear in the typical paper are summarized in the next
Affiliation (The University of North Carolina at Chapel
This section (which is placed before the body of the paper) is
an abstract of the study you have conducted. It should not exceed
100-150 words in length. The abstract should include:
- a statement of the hypotheses or questions to be investigated;
- a statement of procedures, including a word or two about
the subjects and main topics of the survey;
- a statement describing the main findings of the study; and
- a statement about the implications of the obtained results
for future research in the are.
| 1. You can do the next three sections before doing
2. You should pay attention to basic rules of grammar
- Introduction The purpose of this section is to inform
the reader of the general area of your concern, the specific problem
under study, and the reserch strategy. In writing the introduction,
you should consider:
A good introduction answers these questions and gives the reader
a firm sense of what you are doing and why. In stating the rationale
for your study, it is inadequate to state or to imply that
you want to do your study because you wonder what will happen
if you put variables X and Y together. You must justify,
on some grounds, the general "theme" that you are investigating
in the paper. In the introduction you will not be discussing the
particular variables you have chosen to analyze or the tests that
you will be performing.
- What is the point of the study that you are reporting?
- What is the rationale behind the research design?
- Why was the research design chosen in the way it was?
- Are there theoretical implications of the study?
- What is the relation between the current study and previous
work in the area?
- Experimental Hypotheses State each hypothesis, what tests
you plan to use, and why you believe there to be the relation
you are specifying. In other words, if you have a prediction,
state it here and state why it's your prediction.
- Method The method section states how you (and the others
collecting data on the survey) conducting the study. The method
should be described in enough detail so that a reader could carry
out the same study simply on the basis of the information you
include in the method section. The following subsections are included
under the method heading:
This section should answer three questions:
Give major demographic characteristics such as gender and age,
as well as other relevant information. It is critical that the
characteristics of the individuals who participated are made clear.
Report selection and assignment procedures, payments, promises
made, etc. If subjects were selected from some larger group on
the basis of some selection criterion (e.g., only analyses will
be performed on those who indicated current alcohol use), describe
both the initial and the final subject samples.
- Who participated?
- How many participants were there?
- How were they selected?
This section should include a description of the materials that
were used (e.g., if questionnaire or survey: Which one? How
was it designed? How many pages were there? How many items were
there? What type of items were included?).
This section should be a summary of each step in the execution
of the research. It should include the instructions given to
participants. This section should tell the reader what
you (and the rest of the people collecting data on the survey)
did and how you (and the others) did it.
- Results: This section should start with a review of each
variable used in analyses, including descriptive statistics and
visualizations for the variables. All inferential tests must be
reported formally, you should systematically go through the hypotheses
that you outlined and present statistical evidence to retain or
reject your null hypotheses. Back up your information with formal
reports and visualizations, when relevant. All analyses of variance
must have a summary ANOVA table.
- Discussion and Conclusions What happened? Review what
you tested and the major findings you obtained. What have you
learned (or not learned) from this? Take a step back and look
at the tests as a whole. What have you learned from your series
of tests? Were there problems that should be noted in the interpretation
of the findings? How can this research inform future investigations
on this topic. You can be creative here.
- References End the paper with a list of all references
cited in the text. The correct form for citing references and
for listing references is in the Publication Manual of the
American Psychological Association. Also, you may need
to look at the information about citing email
and web pages. Finally, you can look in APA journal reference
sections for guidance on the form of the reference. Because this
paper does not require that you consult outside sources, you will
not need a reference section unless you do actually consult outside
sources (in which case you will need to cite the sources).